Introductory remarks

The jurisdiction of Panama provides flexible structures for pooling investor capital into a discrete legal entity, to implement predetermined investment strategies. This article outlines key considerations for foreign investors looking to establish either a private fund with up to 20 investors or a private fund with up to 50 investors in Panama, including applicable regulations, reporting requirements, and privacy considerations.

Type of fund with up to 20 investors

Such a private fund in Panama benefit from less stringent documentation and reporting requirements compared to larger investment funds. The setting up of a private fund with up to 20 investors in Panama is streamlined given the limited investor group, although adherence to Panama's investment fund legislation remains imperative.

Customised investment mandate

The caps on participation provide greater latitude in crafting bespoke investment portfolios aligned with the sponsor's vision and investors' objectives. This enables targeting of particular asset classes or more diversified strategies.

Enhanced privacy features

With participation strictly capped at 20 investors, the fund can leverage Panama's robust data protection regime to preserve confidentiality and insulate sensitive investor information.

Type of fund with up to 50 investors

In Panama, this type of fund's structure affords greater fundraising capacity for more asset-intensive strategies or larger-scale projects, while maintaining private fund status.

Elevated governance requirements

Commensurate with the larger investor base, such funds involve more stringent reporting, auditing, and governance oversight to engender investor confidence and trust.

Maintained confidentiality

Although the level of confidentiality is high, it may nevertheless be lower than that of the previous type of fund. Privacy and information security remains superior to public fund structures courtesy of Panama's encryption standards and data protection laws.

Investors should carefully weigh the aforementioned factors when electing between types of private funds in Panama. The main things you need to pay attention to before launching an investment fund in Panama are set up process complexity, balancing investor headroom, bespoke mandates, privacy privileges, and attendant governance responsibilities.

Investment fund registration process

Registering an investment fund in Panama necessitates methodical execution across four key phases:

  1. Determining capitalisation and legal architecture,
  2. Formal registration,
  3. Appointing operative bodies,
  4. Adhering to ongoing regulations.

Phase 1: Capital and structure

Investors must firstly elect between a private fund for ≤20 investors or ≤50 investors, which prescribes capital thresholds. The former requires no minimum capitalisation. The latter mandates a $100k minimum ticket size per participating investor. With investor quantity defined, sponsors can opt for either a simplified partnership structure or a specialised investment company in Panama.

Phase 2: Registration

To activate the fund, statutory registration with Panama's securities regulator which evaluates particulars of the proposed capitalisation, governing documents, manager identities, target investments, and fund purpose before formally approving market entry.

Here, you must provide the following information and documentation:

  • Charter and agreement on the fund's creation.
  • Information on the amount of authorized capital.
  • Documents confirming the legal existence and registration of the fund management company.
  • Appointment of fund managers and agents.
  • Description of the fund's investment strategy and its goals.

Phase 3: Managers designation

Investors must appoint competent investment decision-makers to craft and execute strategic directives, as well as administrative agents to manage reporting, accounting, and back office functions. Stringent competency and conduct requirements for directors apply.

Phase 4: Ongoing compliance

Upon clearing registration, funds must continually comply with applicable codes as enforced by regulatory overseers, spanning governance, documentation, capital flows, taxation, and investor protections. Delinquency prompts penalties.

It is better to launch an investment fund in Panama with the support of experienced consultants who know the specifics of the region and the relevant legislation. We have the expertise to support you in navigating all statutory and commercial intricacies.

Operational aspects of fund management

Financial reporting requirements

To uphold transparency standards, Panama-domiciled funds must furnish regulators and investors with routine financial statements prepared under prescribed accounting conventions, namely:

  • Income statements: documents total revenue, expenses, and profit generation over a set period.
  • Balance sheets: presents the fund's financial position at a time, disclosing owned assets, owed liabilities, and residual capital.

Fund controllers must implement IFRS and Panama's statutory reporting codes when compiling statements. This fosters credibility for international stakeholders.


Panama levies a 25% corporate tax on locally generated profits. Crucially, funds can structurally exempt foreign-sourced investment earnings from local taxation. Additionally, the jurisdiction imposes a comparatively low 10% capital gains tax.

Moreover, Panama maintains various double tax treaties internationally, further optimizing tax efficiency across jurisdictional boundaries. This combination of exemptions and treaties cultivates a fiscally advantaged hub for pooling and deploying investor capital globally.

Robust financial reporting paired with tax minimization mechanisms enhances operational excellence and cross-border investor appeal for Panama-based funds.

Safeguarding ownership & privacy

Panama's jurisprudence cultivates robust confidentiality protections for investment fund owners, grounded in three core pillars:

  1. Prudential legal frameworks
    • Mandatory non-disclosure of beneficial owners
    • Stringent personal data handling protocols in Panama
    • Panama's banking secrecy statutes preserve financial privacy
  2. Indirect asset holding
    • Many funds appoint legal proxies to interface with regulators and counterparties, obscuring the identity of financial owners.
  3. Independent courts
    • Panama's courts reliably enforce confidentiality legislation, punishing violations prejudicing owners' anonymity. Judges also judiciously prosecute funds for illicit activities despite secrecy rules.

Panama harmonizes owner privacy privileges with compliance imperatives. Owners can engage fund fiduciaries to tailor enhanced security provisions beyond baseline statutory assurances.

Mitigating potential legal and regulatory risks

Investment funds in Panama must navigate various domestic and international restrictions that may curtail or condition certain activities.

Domestic investment strategies restrictions

Funds must adhere to investment strategy boundaries encoded in their charters, which may prescribe or proscribe exposure to particular asset classes, industries, geographies, or risk profiles. Some funds also enforce mandatory investor lock-up periods before divestment to nurture strategy stability.

International regulatory restrictions and oversight

As a financial hub, Panama is equally obliges all investment funds to adhere to international regulations on tax transparency, anti-money laundering, counterterrorism financing, and prudential reporting protocols like IFRS and FATCA. Non-compliance prompts penalization. Fund fiduciaries must continually interpret emergent intergovernmental cooperation agreements.

While Panama offers a strategically advantageous domicile for launching investment vehicles, fund sponsors must be well-versed in baseline domestic investment ground-rules and evolving global transparency standards if they are to successfully navigate the complex cross-border regulatory landscape. Proactive legalese and compliance expertise is key to mitigating multifaceted risks.

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Panama proffers an advantageous jurisdiction to institute investment funds, coupling stability and credibility with tax optimization. Investors and funds' managers can activate nimble private vehicles with customised mandates or more regulated structures, attracting institutional capital.

Panama's regulatory landscape promotes fund governance, reporting standards, activity parameters, and global transparency requirements. However, failure to continually adapt to emerging cross-border disclosure and taxation protocols can threaten fund integrity and performance.

Launching an investment fund in Panama demands specialised legal and financial expertise. Our firm has the requisite capabilities to activate and steward investment funds in Panama. Please reach out to initiate a consultation on the optimal path forward for your needs.